Studies by Dr. Kipling Williams show that anxiety levels often increase for targets of ostracism. Reducing anxiety levels improves mental and physical health and helps prevent depression.
When severe ostracism is prolonged and not resolved, depression is a common outcome.
Many forms of ostracism are considered emotionally abusive and a type of bullying. Sometimes ostracized people have survived other forms of abuse.
Ostracism and bullying often happen hand in hand. They frequently occur within school systems. They occasionally happen in places of employment when there is a whistleblower within the organization. Bullying is an area of our society that needs to be addressed.